This is a Working Example of our Forecasts
Registered users can produce their own business forecasts in minutes; exactly as is shown here.

# How the Profit and Loss Forecast is Calculated

## This example demonstrates how Figurewizard calculates and displays operating, pre-tax and net profit forecasts simply using your proposed  figures.

 forecast for year beginning the 1st. May 2017 May 2018 May 2019 Sales 1,500,000 1,650,000 2,200,000 add: Delivery / Service Charges 37,500 41,250 55,000 Total Sales 1,537,500 1,691,250 2,255,000 less: Cost of Goods Sold 885,000 973,500 1,298,000 Gross Profit Cfwd 652,500 717,750 957,000 Wages NI and Pensions 300,000 310,000 330,000 Administrative Overheads 105,800 127,200 145,500 Selling Overheads 136,381 156,500 203,567 Depreciation 10,876 17,543 20,290 Operating Overheads and Expenses 553,057 611,243 699,357 Operating Profit 99,443 106,507 257,643 less: Interest Charges 5,062 7,469 5,394 add: Exceptional Item (Profit on Asset Sales) 0 0 0 Pre-Tax Profit for the Year 94,381 99,038 252,249 less: Corporation Tax 13,613 18,495 47,077 Net Profit Cfwd 80,768 80,543 205,172 Corporation Tax % of Pre Tax Profit 14.4% 18.7% 18.7%

### How to Calculate the Profit and Loss Forecast

The two key components of this profit and loss forecast are operating profit from core trading and net profit or net income attributable to shareholders.

They are produced by Figurewizard simply using your own predicted figures for sales, gross profit margin, overheads and so on plus a few simple ratios. The system then does all of the work to arrive at these forecasts, including automatically calculating and applying VAT and corporation tax.

### How to Calculate the Operating Profit Forecast

Net income arising from core trading activity (operations) defines operating profit, making it the key profit forecast when planning as a going concern.

Sales include add-ons such as charges you make for delivery or service charges. When using figurewizard, simply enter that as a percentage of your trade sales. Overheads and expenses directly attributable to trading activity are then deducted to arrive at the operating profit.

Operating profit is the engine that drives the liquidity and cash flow of any business, which is why it matters for any business plan. Banks, creditors and potential investors will pay close attention to your operating profit forecast.

### Other Profits

Profits (or losses) from the sale of fixed assets or income from investments are "exceptional items" unconnected with core trading activity, so are not added to the profit and loss or net income forecast until after operating profit has been calculated.

### How to Improve Net Profit, Liquidity and Cash

Forecast profits here sets fixed overheads at £430,000 but reducing these using the What-If Calculator will dramatically improve both profits and cash.

 Year 1 less: Fixed OH + Wages Pre - Tax Profits Working Capital (Liquidity) Operating Cash Flow Bank: Year End 0% 430,000 94,381 63,022 12,208 -35,439 5% 408,500 116,779 81,165 33,488 -13,261 10% 387,000 138,712 98,931 54,768 8,452

### How to Improve Operating Profit, Liquidity and Cash

In this example the What-If calculator is again used to reduce fixed overheads are reduced but this time with reductions of 0.25% added to the % of sales for the cost of shipping orders and providing for bad debts.

 Shipping and Bad Debts Fixed OH + Wages Pre - Tax Profits Working Capital (Liquidity) Operating Cash Flow Bank: Year-End 7.0% 430,000 94,381 63,022 12,208 -35,439 6.5% 408,500 124,514 87,430 40,896 -5,698 6.0% 387,000 154,015 111,326 69,584 23,410

### How to Calculate a Taxable Profit Forecast

To arrive at an HMRC compliant taxable profit forecast the pre-tax profit forecast is adjusted, for example by substituting capital allowances for depreciation.

Provisions such as for bad debts are also added back, as are charges to profit and loss that are not regarded as having been incurred in trading. In addition, entertainment expenses are also added back.

### Taxable Profit and Entertainment Expenses

Although chargeable to profit and loss, HMRC do not generally accept entertainment expenses as tax deductible. They are also subject to complex rules. For example:

Entertaining Business Clients – Where the entertainment is accepted as a forum for discussing business deals. Not regarded as a benefit in kind.

Any Other Entertainment – Where HMRC does not regard the entertainment charge as appropriate for business dealings a personal and taxable benefit in kind can be created.

Auditors have a duty to report these factors when assessing the company's taxable profit. There is detailed breakdown as to how Figurewizard does this on the Corporation Tax Forecast Page

No intervention by a user is called for for calculating both the taxable profit and the tax. The system does all of this, automatically simply using your own figures

### Planning and Foreasting Overheads and Expenses

The imperative to control overheads is not restricted to companies currently facing or suffering liquidity or cash flow problems.

Increased sales activity almost always brings short or medium term pressures on these, so a business that is growing should looking as critically at overheads as anyone else. That is what the What-If Calculator and Planner is designed to make possible.

### Forecast Profits and Cash Flow Deficits

Profits in a business plan depend on an uninterrupted supply of goods and services, delivered as and when they are needed.

Nothing is more likely to create such interruptions than cash flow deficits. Even a single month's shortage of cash can result in interruptions to supply, a loss of confidence among suppliers and serious consequences for your profit forecast.

### Financial Fees and Interest Charges

Fees associated with financing such as bank, charge card or invoice financing service charges are chargeable to operating profit: Interest charges are not.

Interest charges are a tax-deductible charge to both forecast net profit and forecast taxable profit but because they are solely concerned with servicing external debt they are not chargeable until after operating profit has been calculated.

### Forecast Profit after Tax and Equity

Retained profits after tax is that which is available for distribution of dividends. It is variously referred to in the balance sheet as reserves or shareholders funds forming part of the equity or net worth of the company.

### Working with this Profit and Loss Forecast

What you see here is an example of Figurewizard's profit and loss forecast. It is automatically created by our system using nothing but your own forecast figures for sales, margin, overheads and investment plus a few simple ratios.

Beyond those figures no further intervention is called for as everything, including VAT transactions and corporation tax which are calculated and applied to the forecasts using nothing more than the information you have provided.

FAQs